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Scientific Instruments Using The TI MSP430

One disadvantage to this tutorial is that it require having an LCD display, which you might not have. If not, and are willing to buy one, I would recommend doing so. These displays may be very useful, and aren’t very expensive. They are available in a wide range of sizes and styles– for this tutorial we’ll use a regular 16×2 character alphanumeric display modules, reminiscent of those found at SparkFun.com. SparkFun carries a variety of these modules; be happy to pick one to your liking, but make certain of some things: it needs to be configured to run on 3.3 V and shouldn’t have been modified to simply accept serial input. If you would like a larger module (corresponding to a 20×4 display), it’s as much as you, as they all work the same way. Get whatever color you need.

Wireless White 1 Gang <strong>touch light switch home depot</strong> 1 Way Touch On Off Switch For Lamps 86″ style=”max-width: 360px;”>The SparkFun LCM’s utilize an ST7066 chip because the interface to the display, which is predicated on the ubiquitous HD44780 interface. (If the names make this sound technical, don’t worry a lot about them– the important thing here is that we have now an interface that translates data from the MSP430 into the commands and characters needed to manage the LCM.) This interface uses an 8-bit parallel transmission for sending data to/from the display. As you possibly can imagine, with 8 bits for data, plus another 3 bits for control, you possibly can very quickly run out of GIO pins on your MSP430. In reality, even when we use the G2211 device without a crystal so that P2.5 and P2.6 can be found, we only have 10 GIO pins available in total, so we’re short 3 pins to control the LCM (needing 11 pins) and the comparator interface (needing 2 pins) for our meter. Fortunately, the HD44780 interface (and thus the ST7066) provides a means of sending data in two 4-bit chunks, and as long as we haven’t any need for reading data from the LCM, we are able to get by with 6 pins for LCM control, allowing us to only fit the comparator and the LCM into the 8 GIO pins for P1 on our G2211. We’re stretching the boundaries of this chip at this point, which is great motivation for expanding to other MSP430 devices in the future!</p>
<p>Connecting to the LCM<br />
The standard LCM module has 16 pin connections (14 and not using a backlight). The primary few connections are for power (possibly in two places, if the LCD can be backlit) and contrast adjustment. Pin 1 (labeled as Vss) must be connected to your LaunchPad ground. Pin 2 (Vdd) is connected to the LaunchPad Vcc. If you’re using the backlight, pin 15 (LED+) is also connected to Vcc and pin 16 (LED-) to ground. (This is most easily done on a breadboard. If you find yourself losing track of this description, a great guide to follow is one written by LadyAda.) Pin 3 (Vo) controls the contrast of the screen. In case you have a 10k potentiometer available, tie it to the wiper and tie the 2 ends to Vcc and ground for an adjustable contrast. If not, you may just ground this pin; it probably won’t look pretty much as good as it could, but it’s going to work.</p>
<p>That leaves 11 pins for the control and data lines. The three control lines are pins 4 (RS), 5 (R/W), and 6 (E). The read/write (R/W) pin is just not necessary here, and by tying it to ground we keep the LCM always in write mode. We won’t be capable of read anything from the LCM (such because the address of the cursor, the busy state flag, etc.), but it saves us a pin on the MSP430. The Register Select (RS) and Enable (E) pins are what we’ll use to regulate the LCM. Finally, pins 7-14 are the information lines D0-D7 respectively. You can consider these pins much like the P1 pins on the MSP430– D0 is the first bit, D1 the second, and so forth. If we used an entire GIO port on an MSP430 to manage the data lines, we could connect Px.n to Dn, and by writing a value to Px, we will write the same value to D (conveniently saving us from any strange coding to accommodate changing the order). Because the G2211 would not provide enough ports to do that, we’ll use the 4-bit mode instead. This mode uses only D4-D7. Leave D0-D3 unconnected for now. (Doing so prevents accidentally writing commands we don’t intend.)</p>
<p>For the capacitance meter, we’re going to change among the pin arrangements to accommodate the LCM. We’ll use P1.1 as TA0.0 rather than CA1, and use P1.2/CA2 as the input to V+ on the comparator. P1.0 will control RS, P1.3 will control E, and P1.4-7 will control D4-7.</p>
<p>Note: P1.3 is also connected to the button– this shouldn’t affect the code, but since there is a pull-up resistor on P1.3, there will be excess current whenever we drive E low. Unfortunately, the LaunchPad isn’t designed with a jumper like on P1.0 and P1.6 for the LEDs, so we’ll just must live with this. While we’re on the topic, be sure you remove the jumpers for the two LEDs and on the TXD/RXD pins.</p>
<p>Sending Commands to the LCM<br />
Once we’re wired up, sending commands or characters to the LCM is a straightforward task. In actual fact, it can even be done by hand, without a microcontroller at all! (If you’re interested in this, or want to know more about what’s going on, see the Reader Exercise below.) The fundamental idea is that we write an instruction to the info pins and pulse E. The instruction is distributed on the falling edge of E, which is why it’s pulsed. The instruction issues a command if RS is low, and sends a personality if RS is high.</p>
<p>As an example, let’s look at the commands we need to set the LCM in 4-bit mode. The 8-bit binary instruction 0b001nnnxx is the “Function Set” instruction. (Here, the n’s represent values we choose for the configuration, and the x’s imply an unused bit– these can have either 0’s or 1’s and not affect the instruction.) Bit 4 in this instruction sets the interface mode: a 1 sets the LCM to accept 8-bit instructions, and a 0 sets it to accept 4-bit instructions. So by sending the instruction 0b00100000 (or 0x20), we configure the LCM to accept commands and characters in two 4-bit chunks instead of one 8-bit chunk. This command have to be issued first in order to do anything with our 6-wire setup. We first set the data lines with P1OUT |= 0x20; (which also sets RS low (command mode) and E low in this wiring scheme) after which send the command by pulsing E.</p>
<p>The LCM doesn’t respond instantly to the command, and there are some strict timing requirements in order for it to work correctly. Specifically, RS must be set low a certain amount of time before beginning the pulse on E. The data lines must be set a certain amount of time before the falling edge on the pulse, and must be held at that value a certain period of time after the pulse. Then a certain amount of time must elapse before we are able to pulse E again. Fortunately for us, the only timing value of major concern is the time between command pulses. The other times are on the order of a few hundred nanoseconds, and at the processing speeds of the MSP430 there is enough latency to accommodate them. The amount of time needed to finish a command before accepting another can be on the order of 150 milliseconds, however, and so delays must be incorporated to handle them.</p>
<p>So, to recap, this is the set of instructions needed to set the LCM in 4-bit instruction mode:<br />
__delay_cycles(10000); // anticipate the LCM to settle on power-up<br />
 P1OUT |= 0x20; // set to 4-bit instructions<br />
 P1OUT |= BIT3; // E high<br />
 __delay_cycles(200);<br />
 P1OUT &= ~BIT3; // E low<br />
 __delay_cycles(200);<br />
 P1OUT &= 0x0F; // clear the upper 4 bits</p>
<p>Though E may be set high before setting the data lines, it’s convenient to change the order to forestall any timing mismatches. Note that if you employ different pin connections, or especially if you use multiple GIO ports, this code won’t work exactly as is; it’s convenient to use P1.4-7 for D4-7 to be able to assign on to P1OUT, but this is not general. If we were to swap the order, for example, to P1.4-7 as D7-4, then we would be writing 0b0100 instead of 0b0010 on the data line with this code. So be careful; either use the pin connections I’ve suggested here, or assign the data line bits individually as needed. The final line clears the data line bits to make it easier to set the following command properly.</p>
<p>Other Initializations: Sending Commands in 4-bit Mode<br />
Now we have now our LCM ready to just accept 4-bit commands. This mode works by sending the upper 4-bits (or nibble) with a pulse on E, and then sending the lower nibble with a second pulse. With our wiring scheme, we can do this easily by the next code:</p>
<p>P1OUT |= ( & 0xF0); // send upper nibble<br />
 pulse();<br />
 P1OUT &= 0x0F; // clear<br />
 P1OUT |= (( & 0x0F;) && 4); // send lower nibble<br />
 pulse();<br />
 P1OUT &= 0x0F; // clear</p>
<p>I’m assuming here that I’ve lumped the commands to pulse E with the incorporated delays into a function void pulse(void). refers, of course, to whatever 8-bit command or character we’re sending to the LCM. If we encapsulate this set of commands into a function void SendByte(char), then we can issue the subsequent initialization commands as follows:</p>
<p>SendByte(0x28); // Function Set 4-bit, 2-line mode (for 2-line displays, after all)<br />
 SendByte(0x0E); // Display on, underline cursor on, non-blinking<br />
 SendByte(0x06); // Character entry mode: increment address, no display shift</p>
<p>After sending these commands, our LCM is ready to display whatever characters/text we wish to send it. Note that to send characters, the commands are similar to above, but P1OUT must also set BIT0 (RS) to tell the LCM to receive character instructions rather than commands. In lcddemoG2211.c, I demonstrate this with a more generalized version of SendByte that lets you send commands and characters. It also demonstrates other commands, such as clearing the display and moving the cursor. You probably have an LCM, try out the code yourself. I wouldn’t use a DCO faster than about 2 MHz with the selected delays, so when you play around with the code keep that in mind. In the next tutorial, we’ll look at how one can encapsulate all of this into a custom library that we can keep on hand and how one can import it into our capacitance meter project.</p>
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